120 Latest Selenium Hybrid Framework Interview Questions And Answers

SELENIUM Interview Questions and Answers:-

1. Define what is Automation Testing?
Automation testing or Test Automation is a process of automating the manual process to test the application/system under test. Automation testing involves use to a separate testing tool which lets you create test scripts which can be executed repeatedly and doesn’t require any manual intervention.

2. Define what are the benefits of Automation Testing?
Benefits of Automation testing are:

1. Supports execution of repeated test cases
2. Aids in testing a large test matrix
3. Enables parallel execution
4. Encourages unattended execution
5. Improves accuracy thereby reducing human-generated errors
6. Saves time and money

3. Why should Selenium be selected as a test tool?
Selenium

1. is a free and open source
2. have a large user base and helping communities
3. have cross Browser compatibility (Firefox, Chrome, Internet
Explorer, Safari, etc.)
4. have great platform compatibility (Windows, Mac OS, Linux, etc.)
5. supports multiple programming languages (Java, C#, Ruby, Python,
Pearl etc.)
6. has fresh and regular repository developments
7. supports distributed testing

4. Define what is Selenium and Define what is composed of?
Selenium <https://web.archive.org/web/20180103040743/https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selenium_(software)> is a suite of tools for automated web testing. It is composed of Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment): It is a tool for recording and playing back. It is a Firefox plugin WebDriver and RC: It provides the APIs for a variety of languages like Java, .NET, PHP, etc. With most of the browsers Webdriver and RC works. Grid: With the help of Grid you can distribute tests on multiple machines so that test can be run parallel which helps in cutting down the time required for running in-browser test suites

5. Define what do we mean by Selenium 1 and Selenium 2?
Selenium RC and WebDriver, in a combination, are popularly known as Selenium 2. Selenium RC alone is also referred to as Selenium 1.

6. Which is the latest Selenium tool?
WebDriver

7. Define what are the testing types that can be supported by Selenium?
Selenium supports the following types of testing:

1. Functional Testing
2. Regression Testing

8. Why should Selenium be selected as a test tool?
Selenium is free and open source Have a large user base and helping communities Have cross Browser compatibility (Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari, etc.) Have great platform compatibility (Windows, Mac OS, Linux, etc.) Supports multiple programming languages (Java, C#, Ruby, Python, Pearl, etc.) Has fresh and regular repository developments Supports distributed testing

9. Define what are the different types of waits available in WebDriver?
There are two types of waits available in WebDriver:
1.Implicit Wait
2.Explicit Wait
Implicit Wait: Implicit waits are used to provide a default waiting time (say 30 seconds) between each consecutive test step/command across the entire test script. Thus, a subsequent test step would only execute when the 30 seconds have elapsed after executing the previous test step/command. Explicit Wait: Explicit waits are used to halt the execution till the time a particular condition is met or the maximum time has elapsed. Unlike Implicit waits, explicit waits are applied for a particular instance only.

10. Define what are the limitations of Selenium?
Following are the limitations of Selenium:

  • Selenium supports testing of only web-based applications
  • Mobile applications cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Captcha and Bar code readers cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Reports can only be generated using third-party tools like TestNG or JUnit.
  • As Selenium is a free tool, thus there is no ready vendor support through the user can find numerous helping communities.
  • User is expected to possess prior programming language knowledge.

11. When should I use Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE is the simplest and easiest of all the tools within the Selenium Package. Its record and playback feature makes it exceptionally easy to learn with minimal acquaintances to any programming language. Selenium IDE is an ideal tool for a naïve user.

12. Explain How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?
The following syntax can be used to launch Browser:

1. WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
2. WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
3. WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

13. Define what is Selenese?
Selenese is the language which is used to write test scripts in Selenium IDE.

14. When should I use Selenium Grid?
Selenium Grid can be used to execute same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently so as to achieve distributed test execution, testing under different environments and saving execution time remarkably.

15. Define what is Selenium? Define what are the different Selenium components?
Selenium is one of the most popular automated testing suites. Selenium is designed in a way to support and encourage automation testing of functional aspects of web-based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms. Due to its existence in the open source community, it has become one of the most accepted tools among the testing professionals. Selenium is not just a single tool or a utility, rather a package of several testing tools and for the same reason, it is referred to as a Suite. Each of these tools is designed to cater to different testing and test environment requirements. The suite package constitutes of the following sets of tools: Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE) – Selenium IDE is a record and playback tool. It is distributed as a Firefox Plugin.
Selenium Remote Control (RC) – Selenium RC is a server that allows a user to create test scripts in the desired programming language. It also allows executing test scripts within the large spectrum of browsers. Selenium WebDriver – WebDriver is a different tool altogether that has various advantages over Selenium RC. WebDriver directly communicates with the web browser and uses its native compatibility to automate. Selenium Grid – Selenium Grid is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments concurrently.

16. Define what is an XPath?
XPath is used to locate a web element based on its XML path. XML stands for Extensible Markup Language and is used to store, organize and transport arbitrary data. It stores data in a key-value pair which is very much similar to HTML tags. Both being markup languages and since they fall under the same umbrella, XPath can be used to locate HTML elements. The fundamental behind locating elements using XPath is the traversing between various elements across the entire page and thus enabling a user to find an element with the reference of another element.

17. Explain How to type in a textbox using Selenium?
User can use sendKeys(“String to be entered”) to enter the string in the
textbox.
Syntax:
WebElement username = drv.findElement(By.id(“Email”));
// entering username
username.sendKeys(“sth”);

18. Explain How can you find if an element in displayed on the screen?
WebDriver facilitates the user with the following methods to check the visibility of the web elements. These web elements can be buttons, drop boxes, checkboxes, radio buttons, labels etc.
1.isDisplayed()
2.isSelected()
3.isEnabled()
Syntax:

isDisplayed():
boolean buttonPresence = driver.findElement(By.id(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();

isSelected():
boolean buttonSelected =driver.findElement(By.id(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();

isEnabled():
boolean searchIconEnabled = driver.findElement(By.id(“gbqfb”)).isEnabled();

19. Can you explain the phase of Automation Testing LifeCycle?

Outline the potential benefits and test tool proposal Test tool evaluation and selection Steps necessary to outline automated testing to the project Identifies the test procedure standards, defines the tests, defines development standard Test plans are executed This is done throughout the life-cycle.

20. Define what are the different types of locators in Selenium?
A locator can be termed as an address that identifies a web element uniquely within the webpage. Thus, to identify web elements accurately and precisely we have different types of locators in Selenium:

ID
ClassName
Name
TagName
LinkText
PartialLinkText
Xpath
CSS Selector
DOM

21. Define what are the different types of Drivers available in WebDriver?
The different drivers available in WebDriver are:

FirefoxDriver
InternetExplorerDriver
ChromeDriver
SafariDriver
OperaDriver
AndroidDriver
IPhoneDriver
HtmlUnitDriver

22. Define what is the difference between assert and verify commands?
Assert:  Assert command checks whether the given condition is true or false. Let’s say we assert whether the given element is present on the web page or not. If the condition is true then the program control will execute the next test step but if the condition is false, the execution would stop and no further test would be executed. Verify:  Verify command also checks whether the given condition is true or false. Irrespective of the condition being true or false, the program execution doesn’t halt i.e. any failure during verification would not stop the execution and all the test steps would be executed.

23. Define what are the steps to run automation using selenium?
The very basic steps are:

1. Record the test steps using selenium-IDE.
2. Modify the script according to the testing needs. Add validation
points, Java Scripts, Time-out, etc.
3. Run the test.
4. View the result after the test runs completely analyze.

24. Define what are the capabilities of Selenium IDE?

Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) works similar to commercial tools like QTP, Silk Test and Test Partner, etc. The below points describe well about Selenium IDE. Selenium IDE is a Firefox add-on. Selenium IDE can support recording the clicks, typing, and other actions to make test cases. Using Selenium IDE, a tester can play back the test cases in the Firefox browser. Selenium IDE supports exporting the test cases and suites to
Selenium RC. Debugging of the test cases with step-by-step can be done. Breakpoint insertion is possible. Page abstraction functionality is supported by Selenium IDE. Selenium IDE can support an extensibility capability allowing the use of add-ons or user extensions that expand the functionality of Selenium IDE

25. Explain How to find more than one web element in the list?
At times, we may come across elements of the same type like multiple hyperlinks, images, etc arranged in an ordered or unordered list. Thus, it makes absolute sense to deal with such elements by a single piece of code and this can be done using WebElement List.

Sample Code
// Storing the list
List elementList =
driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
// Fetching the size of the list
int listSize = elementList.size();
for (int i=0; i {
// Clicking on each service provider link
serviceProviderLinks.get(i).click();
// Navigating back to the previous page that stores link to service
providers
driver.navigate().back();
}

26. Define what is the difference between driver.close() and driver.quit command?
close(): WebDriver’s close() method closes the web browser window that the user is currently working on or we can also say the window that is being currently accessed by the WebDriver. The command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value. quit(): Unlike close() method, quit() method closes down all the windows
that the program has opened. Same as close() method, the command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.

27. Explain How can we get a text of a web element?
Get command is used to retrieve the inner text of the specified web element. The command doesn’t require any parameter but returns a string value. It is also one of the extensively used commands for verification of messages, labels, errors, etc displayed on the web pages.
Syntax:
String Text = driver.findElement(By.id(“Text”)).getText();
Define what is the difference between “/” and “//” in Xpath?
Single Slash “/” –
Single slash is used to create XPath with absolute path i.e. the path would be created to start selection from the document node/start node.

Double Slash “//” –
Double slash is used to create XPath with relative path i.e. the XPath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document. Explain How to select the value in a dropdown? Value in the dropdown can be selected using WebDriver’s Select class.

Syntax:
SelectByValue:
Select selectByValue = new
Select(driver.findElement(By.id(“SelectID_One”)));
selectByValue.selectByValue(“greenvalue”);

selectByVisibleText:
Select selectByVisibleText = new Select
(driver.findElement(By.id(“SelectID_Two”)));
selectByVisibleText.selectByVisibleText(“Lime”);

selectByIndex:
Select selectByIndex = new
Select(driver.findElement(By.id(“SelectID_Three”)));
selectByIndex.selectByIndex(2);

28. Define what are the different types of navigation commands?
Following are the navigation commands:

navigate().back() – The above command requires no parameters and takes back the user to the previous webpage in the web browser’s history.
Sample code:
driver.navigate().back();

navigate().forward() –
This command lets the user to navigate to the next web page with reference to the browser’s history.

Sample code:
driver.navigate().forward();

navigate().refresh() –
This command lets the user to refresh the current web page there by reloading all the web elements.

Sample code:
driver.navigate().refresh();

navigate().to() –
This command lets the user to launch a new web browser window and navigate to the specified URL.

Sample code:
driver.navigate().to(“https://google.com”);

29. Explain How to get title?
driver.getTitle();~To Print: System.out.println( driver.getTitle());

30. Can Selenium handle windows based pop up?
Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing. Therefore, windows pop up cannot be handled using Selenium.

31. Can WebDriver test Mobile applications?
WebDriver cannot test Mobile applications. WebDriver is a web-based testing tool, therefore applications on the mobile browsers can be tested.

32. Explain How can we handle web-based pop up?
WebDriver offers the users with a very efficient way to handle these pop-ups using Alert interface. There are the four methods that we would be using along with the Alert interface. void dismiss() – The accept() method clicks on the “Cancel” button as soon as the pop-up window appears. void accept() – The accept() method clicks on the “Ok” button as soon as the pop-up window appears. String getText() – The getText() method returns the text displayed
on the alert box. void sendKeys(String stringToSend) – The sendKeys() method enters the specified string pattern into the alert box.

Syntax:
// accepting javascript alert
Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();
alert.accept();

33. Explain How can we handle windows based pop up?
Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing, that means, it doesn’t support testing of windows based applications. Explain However Selenium alone can’t help the situation but along with some third-party intervention, this problem can be overcome. There are several third-party tools available for handling
window based pop-ups along with the selenium like AutoIT, Robot class, etc.

34. Explain How to click on a hyperlink using link text?
driver.findElement(By.linkText(“Google”)).click(); The command finds the element using link text and then click on that element and thus the user would be re-directed to the corresponding page. The above-mentioned link can also be accessed by using the following command. driver.findElement(By.partialLinkText(“Goo”)).click(); The above command find the element based on the substring of the link provided in the parenthesis and thus partialLinkText() finds the web element with the specified substring and then clicks on it.

35. Explain How to assert the title of the web page?
//verify the title of the web page assertTrue(“The title of the window is incorrect.”,driver.getTitle().equals(“Title of the page”));

36. Define what is a framework?
The framework is a constructive blend of various guidelines, coding standards, concepts, processes, practices, project hierarchies, modularity, reporting mechanism, test data injections, etc. to pillar automation testing.

37. Explain How to handle frame in WebDriver?
An inline frame acronym as iframe is used to insert another document within the current HTML document or simply a web page into a web page by enabling nesting. Select iframe by id driver.switchTo().frame(“ID of the frame“); Locating iframe using tagName driver.switchTo().frame(driver.findElements(By.tagName(“iframe”).get(0));
Locating iframe using index

frame(index)
driver.switchTo().frame(0);

frame(Name of Frame)
driver.switchTo().frame(“name of the frame”);

38. When do we use findElement() and findElements()?
findElement(): findElement() is used to find the first element in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that only first matching element would be fetched.
Syntax:

WebElement element =
driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));

findElements():
findElements() is used to find all the elements in the current web page
matching the specified locator value. Take note that all the
matching elements would be fetched and stored in the list of WebElements.

Syntax:
List elementList =
driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));

39. Define what are the advantages of Automation framework?
Advantage of Test Automation framework

Reusability of code
Maximum coverage
Recovery scenario
Low-cost maintenance
Minimal manual intervention
Easy Reporting

40. Explain How can I read test data from excels?
Test data can efficiently be read from excel using JXL or POI API. See the detailed tutorial here.

41. Explain How Selenium Grid works?
Selenium Grid sent the tests to the hub. These tests are redirected to Selenium Webdriver, which launch the browser and run the test. With the entire test suite, it allows for running tests in parallel.

42. Explain How to mouse hover on a web element using WebDriver?
WebDriver offers a wide range of interaction utilities that the user can exploit to automate mouse and keyboard events. Action Interface is one such utility which simulates the single user interactions. Thus, In the following scenario, we have used Action Interface to mouse hover on a drop down which then opens a list of options.

Sample Code:
// Instantiating Action Interface
Actions actions=new Actions(driver);
// Explain Howering on the dropdown
actions.moveToElement(driver.findElement(By.id(“id of the
dropdown”))).perform();
// Clicking on one of the items in the list options
WebElement subLinkOption=driver.findElement(By.id(“id of the sub link”));
subLinkOption.click();

43. Can captcha be automated?
No, captcha and bar code reader cannot be automated.

44. Explain Define what is assertion in Selenium and Define what are the types of assertion?
An assertion is used as a verification point. It verifies that the state of the application conforms to Define what is expected. The types of assertion are “assert”, “verify” and “wait for”.

45. While using click command can you use screen coordinate?
To click on the specific part of an element, you would need to use click command. ClickAt command accepts element locator and x, y coordinates as arguments- clickAt (locator, cording)

46. Define what are the advantages of Selenium?

1. It supports C#, PHP, Java, Perl, Python
2. It supports different OS like Windows, Linux and Mac OS
3. It has got powerful methods to locate elements (XPath, DOM, CSS)
4. It has highly developer community supported by Google

47. Explain How to retrieve the css properties of an element?
The values of the css properties can be retrieved using a get() method:
Syntax:
driver.findElement(By.id(“id“)).getCssValue(“name of css attribute”);
driver.findElement(By.id(“id“)).getCssValue(“font-size”);
Explain How to capture screen shot in WebDriver?
import org.junit.After;
import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;
import org.apache.commons.io.FileUtils;
import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;
import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;
public class CaptureScreenshot {
WebDriver driver;
@Before
public void setUp() throws Exception {
driver = new FirefoxDriver();
driver.get(“https://google.com”);
}
@After
public void tearDown() throws Exception {
driver.quit();
}
@Test
public void test() throws IOException {
// Code to capture the screenshot
File scrFile = ((TakesScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);
// Code to copy the screenshot in the desired location
FileUtils.copyFile(scrFile, new File(“C:\CaptureScreenshot\google.jpg”));
}
}

48. Define what is the difference between type keys and type commands ?
TypeKeys() will trigger JavaScript event in most of the cases whereas
.type() won’t. Type key populates the value attribute using JavaScript
whereas .typekeys() emulates like actual user typing

49. Define what is the difference between setSpeed() and sleep() methods?
Both will delay the speed of execution. Thread.sleep (): It will stop the current (java) thread for the specified period of time. It’s done only once

• It takes a single argument in integer format Ex: thread.sleep(2000)- It will wait for 2 seconds

• It waits only once at the command given at sleep SetSpeed (): For a specific amount of time, it will stop the execution for every selenium command.

• It takes a single argument in integer format Ex: selenium.setSpeed(“2000”)- It will wait for 2 seconds

• Runs each command after setSpeed delay by the number of milliseconds mentioned in set Speed This command is useful for demonstration purpose or if you are using a slow web application Define what is same origin policy? Explain How you can avoid the same origin policy? The “Same Origin Policy” is introduced for security reason, and it
ensures that the content of your site will never be accessible by a script from another site. As per the policy, any code loaded within the browser can only operate within that website’s domain. To avoid “Same Origin Policy” proxy injection method is used, in proxy injection mode the Selenium Server acts as a client configured HTTP proxy, which sits between the browser and application under test and then masks the AUT under a fictional URL

50. Define what is Object Repository? Explain How can we create Object Repository in Selenium?
Object Repository is a term used to refer to the collection of web elements belonging to Application Under Test (AUT) along with their locator values. Thus, whenever the element is required within the script, the locator value can be populated from the Object Repository. Object Repository is used to store locators in a centralized location
instead of hard coding them within the scripts. In Selenium, objects can be stored in an excel sheet which can be
populated inside the script whenever required.

51. Define what is Selenium 2.0?
Web testing tools Selenium RC and WebDriver are consolidated in single tool in Selenium 2.0

52. Define what is the use of X-path?
X-Path is used to find the WebElement in web pages. It is also useful in identifying the dynamic elements.

53. List out the technical challenges with Selenium?
Technical challenges with Selenium are Selenium supports only web-based applications It does not support the Bitmap comparison For any reporting related capabilities have to depend on third-party tools No vendor support for tool compared to commercial tools like HP UFT As there is no object repository concept in Selenium, maintainability of objects becomes difficult

53. List out the test types that are supported by Selenium?
For web based application testing selenium can be used
The test types can be supported are
a) Functional
b) Regression

For post-release validation with the continuous integration automation tool
could be used
a) Jenkins
b) Hudson
c) Quick Build
d) CruiseControl

54. Define what is heightened privileges browsers?
The purpose of heightened privileges is similar to Proxy Injection, allows websites to do something that is not commonly permitted. The key difference is that the browsers are launched in a special mode called heightened privileges. By using these browser modes, Selenium core can open the AUT directly and also read/write its content without passing the whole AUT through the Selenium RC server

55. Why testers should opt for Selenium and not QTP?

1. Selenium is more popular than QTP as
2. Selenium is an open source whereas QTP is a commercial tool
3. Selenium is used especially for testing web-based applications whileQTP can be used for the testing client-server application also
4. Selenium support

57. Explain How you can use “submit” a form using Selenium?

 Firefox, IE, Opera, Safari on an operating system like Windows, Mac, Linux, etc. Explain However QTP is limited to Internet Explorer on Windows. Selenium supports many programming languages like Ruby, Perl, Python whereas QTP supports only VB script

56. Define what are the four parameters you have to pass in Selenium?
Four parameters that you have to pass in Selenium are

Host
Port Number
Browser
URL

You can use “submit” method on the element to submit a form- element. submit (); Alternatively, you can use click method on the element which does form submission

58. Define what is the difference between Implicit wait and Explicit wait? 

Implicit Wait: Sets a timeout for all successive Web Element searches. For the specified amount of time, it will try looking for element again and again before throwing a NoSuchElementException. It waits for elements to explain How up.

Explicit Wait: It is a one-timer, used for a particular search./p>

59. Define what is Object Repository?
An object repository is an essential entity in any UI automation which allows a tester to store all object that will be used in the scripts in one or more centralized locations rather than scattered all over the test scripts.

60. Explain How to assert text of webpage using selenium 2.0?
WebElement el = driver.findElement(By.id(“ElementID”))
//get test from element and stored in text variable

String text = el.getText();
//assert text from expected
Assert.assertEquals(“Element Text”, text);

61. Can we use Selenium grid for performance testing?
Yes. But not as effective as a dedicated performance testing tool like LoadRunner.

62. Can Selenium test an application on an Android browser?
Selenium can handle Android browser.

63. Which browsers does WebDriver support?
The existing drivers are the ChromeDriver, InternetExplorerDriver, FirefoxDriver, OperaDriver and HtmlUnitDriver. For more information about each of these, including their relative strengths and weaknesses,
please follow the links to the relevant pages. There is also support for mobile testing via the AndroidDriver, OperaMobileDriver, and IPhoneDriver

64. Define what tests can selenium do?
Selenium could do functional, regression, and a load of web-based
applications.p>

65. Which attribute you should consider throughout the script in a frame for “if no frame Id as well as no frame name”?

You can use…..driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//iframe”))…. This will return the list of frames. You will need to switch to each and every frame and search for locator which we want. Then break the loop

66. Explain How do I execute Javascript directly?
We believe that most of the time there is a requirement to execute Javascript there is a failing in the tool being used: it hasn’t emitted the correct events has not interacted with a page correctly or has failed to react when an XMLHttpRequest returns. We would rather fix WebDriver to work consistently and correctly than rely on testers
working out which Javascript method to call. We also realize that there will be times when this is a limitation. As a
result, for those browsers that support it, you can execute Javascript by casting the WebDriver instance to a JavascriptExecutor. In Java, this
looks like:

WebDriver driver; // Assigned elsewhere

JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;

js.executeScript(“return document.title”);

Other language bindings will follow a similar approach. Take a look at the using javascript page for more information.

67. My XPath finds elements in one browser, but not in others. Why is this?
The short answer is that each supported browser handles XPath slightly differently, and you’re probably running into one of these differences. The long answer is on the XpathInWebDriver page..

68. Explain Define what is the difference between find elements () and find element () ?
find element ():
It finds the first element within the current page using the given “locating mechanism”. It returns a single WebElement

findElements () :
Using the given “locating mechanism” find all the elements within the current page. It returns a list of web elements.
Explain Define what are the JUnits annotation linked with Selenium? The JUnits annotation linked with Selenium are

@Before public void method() –
It will perform the method () before each test, this method can prepare the test

@Test public void method() –
Annotations @Test identifies that this method is a test method environment

@After public void method()-
To execute a method before this annotation is used, the test method must
start with [email protected]

69. Define what is Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE is an integrated development environment for Selenium tests. It is implemented as a Firefox extension and has a recording feature, which will keep account of user actions as they are performed and store them as a reusable script to play back. Selenium-IDE also offers full editing of test cases for more precision and control.

70. Why is my Javascript execution always returning null?
ou need to return from your javascript snippet to return a value, so:

js.executeScript(“document.title”); will return null, but:

js.executeScript(“return document.title”); will return the title of the document.

71. Define what is WebDriver?
WebDriver is a tool for writing automated tests of websites. It aims to mimic the behavior of a real user, and as such interacts with the HTML of the application

72. Can Selenium test an application on iPhone’s Mobile Safari browser?
Selenium can handle the Mobile Safari browser. It is experimental Selenium iPhone Driver for running tests on Mobile with Safari on the iPhone and iPad and iPod Touch.

73. Define what are the disadvantages of Selenium?
Disadvantages of Selenium:

  • Limitation in terms of browser support (It runs only in Mozilla).
  • Scripts written using Selenium IDE can be used for other browsers only if it is used with Selenium RC or Selenium Core.
  • We can’t run a recorded script if it is converted to Java, C#, Ruby, etc.
  • Not allowed to write manual scripts like conditions and Loops for Data Driven Testing There is no option to verify images

74. Explain Define what is Data-driven framework and Keyword driven?
Data-driven framework:
In this framework, the test data is separated and kept outside the Test Scripts, while test case logic resides in Test Scripts. Test data is read from the external files ( Excel Files) and are loaded into the variables inside the Test Script. Variables are used for both for input values and for verification values. Keyword driven framework: The keyword-driven frameworks require the development of data tables and keywords, independent of the test automation. In a keyword-driven test, the functionality of the application under test is documented in a table as well as step by step instructions for each test.

76. Define what are the features of TestNG and list some of the functionality in TestNG which makes it more effective?
TestNG is a testing framework based on JUnit and NUnit to simplify a broad range of testing needs, from unit testing to integration testing. And the functionality which makes it efficient testing frameworks are

  • Support for annotations
  • Support for data-driven testing
  • Flexible test configuration
  • Ability to re-execute failed test cases

77. Explain How you can log in into any site if it’s explained Howling any authentication popup for password and username?
Pass the username and password with URL
Syntax- http://username:[email protected]
ex- http://creyate:[email protected]

78. Define what is the selenium’s recording language?
Selenium’s recording language is “HTML”.

79. Define what does it mean to be “developer focused”?
We believe that within a software application’s development team, the people who are best placed to build the tools that everyone else can use are the developers. Although it should be easy to use WebDriver directly, it should also be easy to use it as a building block for more sophisticated tools. Because of this, WebDriver has a small API that’s easy to explore by hitting the “autocomplete” button in your favorite IDE and aims to work consistently no matter which browser implementation you use.

80. Define what are the steps to run automation using selenium?
The very basic steps are:

Record the test steps using selenium-IDE. Modify the script according to the testing needs. Add validation
points, Java Scripts, Time-out, etc.

81. Why use TestNG with Selenium RC?

If you want full automation against the different server and client platforms, You need a way to invoke the tests from a command line process, reports that tell you Define what happened and flexibility in Explain How you create your test suites. TestNG gives that flexibility.

82. Explain How you can capture server-side log Selenium Server?

To capture server-side log in Selenium Server, you can use command

java –jar .jar –log selenium.log

83. Other than the default port 4444 Explain How you can run Selenium Server?

You can run Selenium server on java-jar selenium-server.jar-port other than its default port

84. Explain How Selenium grid hub keeps in touch with RC slave machine?

At predefined time selenium grid hub keeps polling all RC slaves to make sure it is available for testing. The deciding parameter is called “remoteControlPollingIntervalSeconds” and is defined in “grid_configuration.yml” file

85. Using Selenium Explain How can you handle network latency?

To handle network latency you can use driver.manage.pageloadingtime for
network latency

86. To enter values into text boxes Define what is the command that can be used?

To enter values into text boxes we can use command sendkeys()

87. Explain How do you identify an object using selenium?

To identify an object using Selenium you can use

isElementPresent(String locator)

isElementPresent takes a locator as the argument and if found returns a
Boolean

88. In Selenium Define what are Breakpoints and Startpoints?

Breakpoints: When you implement a breakpoint in your code, the execution will stop right there. This helps you to verify that your code is working as expected. StartpointsStartpoint indicates the point from where the execution
should begin. The start point can be used when you want to run the test script from the middle of the code or a breakpoint.

89. why to choose Python over Java in Selenium?

Few points that favor Python over Java to use with Selenium is, Java programs tend to run slower compared to Python programs Java uses traditional braces to start and ends blocks, while Python uses indentation. Java employs static typing, while Python is dynamically typed. Python is simpler and more compact compared to Java.

90. Define what are the challenges in Handling Ajax Call in Selenium Webdriver?

The challenges faced in Handling Ajax Call in Selenium Webdriver are

Using the “pause” command for handling Ajax call is not completely reliable. Long pause time makes the test unacceptably slow and increases the testing time. Instead, “wait for condition” will be more helpful in testing Ajax applications. It is difficult to assess the risk associated with particular Ajax applications Given full freedom to developers to modify Ajax application makes the testing process challenging Creating automated test request may be difficult for testing tools as such AJAX application often use different encoding or serialization technique to submit POST data.

91. Define what is IntelliJ?

IntelliJ is an IDE that helps you to write better and faster code for Selenium. IntelliJ can be used in the option to Java bean and Eclipse.

92. Define in what ways you can customize TestNG report?

You can customize TestNG report in two ways,

1. Using ITestListener Interface
2. Using IReporter Interface

93. To generate pdf reports Define what Java API is required?

To generate pdf reports, you need Java API IText.

94. Define what is Listeners in Selenium WebDriver?

In Selenium WebDriver, Listeners “listen” to the event defined in the selenium script and behave accordingly. It allows customizing TestNG reports or logs. There are two main listeners i.e. WebDriver Listeners and TestNG Listeners.

95. Define what are the types of Listeners in TestNG?

The types of Listeners in TestNG are,

1. IAnnotationTransformer
2. IAnnotationTransformer2
3. IConfigurable
4. IConfigurationListener
5. IExecutionListener
6. IHookable
7. IInvokedMethodListener
8. IInvokedMethodListener2
9. IMethodInterceptor
10. IReporter
11. ISuiteListener
12. ITestListener

96. Define what is the desired capability? Explain How is it useful in terms of Selenium?

The desired capability is a series of key/value pairs that stores the browser properties like browser name, browser version, the path of the browser driver in the system, etc. to determine the behavior of the browser at run time.

For Selenium, It can be used to configure the driver instance of Selenium WebDriver. When you want to run the test cases on a different browser with different operating systems and versions.

97. For Database Testing in Selenium Webdriver Define what API is required?

For Database Testing in Selenium Webdriver, you need JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) API. It allows you to execute SQL statements.

98. when to use AutoIT?

Selenium is designed to automate web-based applications on different browsers. But to handle window GUI and non-HTML popups in the application you need AutoIT.

99. Why do you need Session Handling while working with Selenium?

While working with Selenium, you need Session Handling. This is because, during test execution, the Selenium WebDriver has to interact with the browser all the time to execute given commands. At the time of execution, it is also possible that, before the current execution completes, someone else starts execution of another script, in the same machine and in the same type of browser. So to avoid such a situation you need Session
Handling.

100. Define what are the advantages of Using Git Hub For Selenium?

The advantages of Using Git Hub for Selenium are

  • Multiple people when they work on the same project they can update project details and inform other team members simultaneously.
  • Jenkins can help you to build the project from the remote repository regularly. This helps you to keep track of failed builds.

101. Define what is Selenium and Define what is composed of?

Selenium is a suite of tools for automated web testing. It is composed of Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment): It is a tool for recording and playing back. It is a firefox plugin WebDriver and RC: It provides the APIs for a variety of language like Java, .NET, PHP, etc. With most of the browsers Webdriver and RC works. Grid: With the help of Grid you can distribute tests on multiple machines so that test can be run parallel which helps in cutting down the time required for running in-browser test suites

102. What are three fields in selenium IDE?
Command, Target, Value

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